�Z�+��rI��4���n�������=�S�j�Zg�@R ��QΆL��ۦ�������S�����K���3qK����C�3��g/���'���k��>�I�E��+�{����)��Fs���/Ė- �=��I���7I �{g�خ��(�9`�������S���I��#�ǖGPRO��+���{��\_��wW��4W�Z�=���#ן�-���? (Note that our source for this review is the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.) The phrase such as requires a comma in front of it only if it’s part of a nonrestrictive clause. When should you use it? recommends using footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources. This tool lets you enter and save data about books (author, title, etc.). Q. � ? Account Management, About the University of Chicago Press According to CMOS 6.51, “Expressions of the type that is are traditionally followed by a comma. Writers will sometimes disagree on when to use a comma or omit one; to help you as you write, here are a few general rules for using commas. A good rule of thumb is: If you don’t feel the need to put the clause starting with “because” in parentheses, don’t use a comma. Q. When a conjunction joins the last two elements in a series, a comma—known as the serial or series comma or the Oxford comma—should appear before the conjunction. � �l%��Ž��� �W��H* �=BR d�J:::�� �$ @H* �,�T Y � �@R d�� �I �� They are best preceded by an em dash or a semicolon rather than a comma, or the entire phrase they introduce may be enclosed in parentheses or em dashes.” My question is this: Would it still be acceptable to use a comma in such expressions rather than the em dash or parentheses? << "How many days until Christmas?" Q. OR Amherst, Massachusetts’, Emily Dickinson . Can you help? But some editors would argue that the version with the comma splice isn’t truly an error; it’s simply two independent clauses joined by a conjunction that’s been elided: “Paul put the kettle on, [and] Don fetched the teapot.” Such elision is more common in casual prose, but it does have its place, particularly in creative writing. June 15, 2005. to the Chicago Manual of Style: Q. John Smith Jr. or. 7) When should you use it? Shorter adverbial phrases are less likely to merit a comma than longer ones. Grammarly’s writing assistant can help you make sure your punctuation, spelling, and grammar are tip-top on all your favorite websites. A. x����_w��q����h���zΞ=u۪@/����t-�崮gw�=�����RK�Rl�¶Z����@�(� �E @�B.�����|�0�L� ��~>��>�L&C}��;3���lV�U���t:�V{ |�\R4)�P�����ݻw鋑�������: ���JeU��������F��8 �D��hR:YU)�v��&����) ��P:YU)�4Q��t�5�v�� `���RF)�4Qe�#a� This traditional style has persisted even though it’s no longer universally followed outside of the United States and isn’t entirely logical. ("Merry Christmas," Squiggly said. Or a pear. Another option is to omit both commas: “Washington DC is a great city.” That’s US Postal Service style for mailing labels, but it’s not Chicago style for running text (though maybe one day it will be). Consider the example below: Here’s a tip: Want to make sure your writing always looks great? , are not an exhaustive outline but rather an introduction to the basic rules. /SM 0.02 Anything that is set off from all or part of a sentence requires two commas, unless the word or phrase being set off is at. /SMask /None>> But the problem with that first comma—and the reason we discourage it—is that unlike dashes, semicolons, and opening parentheses, which are forward looking, commas tend to be backward looking. You can fix the transgression by adding a conjunction or by changing the comma to a semicolon: Paul put the kettle on, and Don fetched the teapot. CMOS editors share writing tips, editing ideas, interviews, quizzes, and more! Go for the Extra Points! COMMA BEFORE QUOTED MATERIAL CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE 6.50 Commas with quotations Material quoted in the form of dialogue or from text is traditionally introduced with a comma (but see 6.63, 13.17). .” A fellow editor suggests striking all of the commas that follow the dates. In this example, what's right? Every so-called comma splice is a conjunction away from conformity. on the other.”. This month’s workout centers on sections 6.09–11 of CMOS 16, “Punctuation in Relation to Closing Quotation Marks.” Advanced editors might tackle the questions cold; learners can study sections 6.09–11 of the Manual before answering the questions. Of course, setting off a phrase like “of course” will emphasize the phrase itself. But to shift the emphasis to include the words that follow, you should omit the comma. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010– available in the Library Reference Room (Ref Z253.U69). When in doubt, leave it out. >> Aardvark asked.) In general, a flexible approach will serve the reader better than a rigid one. Also for a journal article, the volume and issue number are separated by a comma and are not put in parentheses, though the year is. Yet when we added tomorrow, the dependent clause became nonessential. traditional comma before Jr. or Sr., the function of the comma is to. According to The Chicago Manual of Style, commas and periods are almost always placed before a closing quotation mark, “like this,” rather than after, “like this”. Click to learn more about your options for accessing The Chicago Manual of Style Online or Scientific Style and Format Online. The Chicago Manual of Style gives the same advice on both fronts. . Strictly speaking, the comma in your example is unnecessary. The Chicago Manual’s Rules. If the journal lists a month or a month and day of publication, include it before the year of publication. As for supplying the “missing” conjunction, that would be pointless. It has since grown to 1,000 pages. Footnotes are normally inserted at the end of a sentence or clause. It may seem reasonable to add a second comma, as Chicago would advise in similar scenarios—for example, after a year when it follows a day: “July 7, 2020, was a Tuesday.” But those two commas work like parentheses, which could be substituted for the commas without changing the meaning of the sentence: “July 7 (2020) was a Tuesday.” The comma in “11 minutes, 52 seconds” acts more like a conjunction, standing in for “and”: The tortoise crossed the finish line 11 minutes, 52 seconds ahead of the hare. Nor does such a comma bear any syntactic relation to the surrounding text. I can’t find a specific reference to this anywhere, though. /Type /ExtGState The Oxford comma is the final comma in a serial list, used just before the conjunction. When style issues are implicated in this guide, I have usually deferred to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition. Even in the simplest of sentences, however, a bit of extra punctuation relative to an “or” or an “and” may be appropriate sometimes. Download Chicago Manual of Style for free. recommends using footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources. . I think there should. When an expression like “11 minutes, 52 seconds” occurs in the middle of a sentence (as in “We finished 11 minutes, 52 seconds ahead of the next car”), is a second comma required? /CreationDate (D:20201005072259+03'00') Thanks. /Subtype /Image ¶ Over 1.5 million copies sold! If an issue number is available, include it after the volume number and before the year published. . That last approach is fine for casual prose, but formal prose usually calls for the more structured punctuation choices recommended in CMOS. The Chicago Manual of Style , our preferred guide, says that in nontechnical writing, we should spell out “whole numbers from one through one hundred, round numbers, and any number beginning a sentence” (380). Paul put the kettle on; Don fetched the teapot. This traditional style has persisted even though it’s no longer universally followed outside of the United States and isn’t entirely logical. Keep the Comma After a Title. Shorter adverbial phrases are less likely to merit a comma than longer ones. The comma is used to avoid confusing consecutive numbers: December 19 1941. A. Technically, yes: two commas would still be considered correct. 5) If you’re still not convinced, and if dropping the first comma isn’t an option (some companies will insist), follow the logic of titles of works and omit the second comma. The Chicago Manual of Style is a registered trademark of The University of Chicago. Note: Without the word tomorrow, we wouldn’t need a comma between doctor and before—we often don’t use a comma to separate an independent clause from a dependent one when the independent one comes first. Chicago Style Guide, for 17th Edition. Here’s a tip: Commas can be tricky, but they don’t have to trip you up. The exceptions include years, page numbers, and street addresses. Afterwards, include a colon, the page numbers the article appears on, and a period. >> The editors at the Chicago Manual of Style share their opinion: Use commas with too only when you want to emphasize an abrupt change of thought: He didn’t know at first what hit him, but then, too, he hadn’t ever walked in a field strewn with garden rakes. If in doubt about whether or not to use a comma, read your sentence aloud and consider whether you need a pause anyplace. Get in the swing! If a quotation is introduced by that, whether, or a similar conjunction, no comma is needed. Why does a comma follow Washington, DC, in running text? The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMOS or CMS, or sometimes as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press.Its 17 editions have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing. Since it seems that the placement of a comma can change the meaning, I’d hoped for something a bit more definitive than “You do you, boo.”, A. All of these are correct. . The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition text © 2017 by The University of Chicago. The Chicago Manual of Style began in 1891 as a one-page style sheet for typesetters at the University of Chicago Press. But if you must stick to the possessive, you have our permission to drop the second comma (the one after the state or province) as a reasonable exception to Chicago’s preference for commas in pairs, a preference that applies also to dates (see CMOS 6.17 and 6.38–39). I have received a rejection with the first page sent back and the editor's deletion marks are in contradiction to the rule in the << I use The Chicago Manual of Style, which recommends using the comma to separate the speech from the speaker.It also recommends space (3-to-em) around each of the points used in quoted text, but the applies that typography to its examples of faltering speech. Q: In my writing I strictly follow the rules in The Chicago Manual of Style. Terms of Use There are several uses of the comma that can best be described as conventional or mechanical. Your editor friend’s suggestion is reasonable, and Chicago recommends much the same approach (see CMOS 6.31). Omit the Comma Before an Attribution. The tortoise crossed the finish line 11 minutes and 52 seconds ahead of the hare. /Title (�� C o m m a b e f o r e i n c l u d i n g c h i c a g o m a n u a l o f s t y l e) The idea is that a combination of uppercase letters, periods and a lowercase ‘s’ is confusing at first glance, and that the apostrophe helps a reader see that the ‘s’ has been added to make a plural.” For example, “Washington, DC is a great city” might mean that you are telling someone named Washington that DC is a great city. Write it. . GRAMMAR'S RESPONSE: Good. I wasn’t aware that people used the ellipsis so frequently; it just wasn’t on my radar. Here, some of the more commonly encountered and misunderstood rules in the book. Your parenthetical comes before any comma, period, or other punctuation mark when the quotation is run into the text. The Chicago Manual of Style , our preferred guide, says that in nontechnical writing, we should spell out “whole numbers from one through one hundred, round numbers, and any number beginning a sentence” (380). The Chicago Manual of Style Online © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by The University of Chicago. Subscribe to The Chicago Manual of Style Online. This traditional style has persisted even though it’s no longer universally followed outside of the United States and isn’t entirely logical. I’ll take an apple (or a pear). Other expressions that consist of a mix of related units may be handled similarly: “The team’s starting pitcher is five feet, nine inches tall.” But compare the case of a conversion, where the converted units must be fully set off from the surrounding text: “We drove 120 miles (193 km) before running out of gas,” or “We drove 120 miles, or 193 kilometers, before running out of gas.”, Q. I don’t understand why the following example in the serial comma section (CMOS 6.19) is not considered a comma splice: “Paul put the kettle on, Don fetched the teapot, and I made tea.”. Q: In my writing I strictly follow the rules in The Chicago Manual of Style. With a series of three or more independent clauses, on the other hand, it is conventional to retain only the final “and”: Paul put the kettle on, Don fetched the teapot, and I made tea. , are not an exhaustive outline but rather an introduction to the basic rules. /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB . endobj Recasting the sentence is not a useful option because there is a longish list of names and places: Long Branch, New Jersey’s Bruce Springsteen and Lachine, Quebec’s Saul Bellow and . The no-smoking policy applies to teachers as well as to students. Some sources say you always put a comma after “of course.” Others say it’s up to the author. A. I’ll take an apple—or a pear. The Chicago Manual of Style (17 th ed.) Consider that without the second comma, a misreading is possible. Privacy Policy /AIS false Examples . Try a free 30-day trial of The Chicago Manual of Style Online or Scientific Style and Format Online. The committee, that is, its more influential members, wanted to drop the matter. ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. The first proofreading job I took on after setting up my business had dozens of ellipses in it, so I had to learn how to deal with them quickly. If in doubt about whether or not to use a comma, read your sentence aloud and consider whether you need a pause anyplace. A. As comma splices go, the following sentence would be considered a classic case: Paul put the kettle on, Don fetched the teapot. The fact that titles of works are usually cordoned off from the surrounding text by italics or quotation marks supports this logic. When it repeats the subject, a word like “myself” is called an intensifier—it adds emphasis. Note that Chicago style for the possessive form of Amherst’s home state requires an apostrophe and an s: Massachusetts’s Emily Dickinson (another incentive to avoid the possessive). Our primary focus will be on the rules for footnotes, but we will provide some guidance for endnotes as well. /CA 1.0 For more details and many more examples, see chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. This guide explains the Author/Date system. Comma before and in AP style. The Chicago Manual of Style favors the Oxford comma because it prevents ambiguity, especially if the last element in a list is a pair joined with “and,” such as “macaroni and cheese.” Ex: They are going to the store with my sister, brother, and cousin. Creates author-date ref list entries and citations. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. stream The Chicago Manual of Style states that i.e. That second comma helps to set “DC” off from the surrounding text; together, the commas work like parentheses. Thank you! Numbers. 1 2 . Not according to the Chicago Manual of Style. (�f�y�$ ����؍v��3����S}B�2E�����َ_>������.S, �'��5ܠo���������}��ز�y���������� ����Ǻ�G���l�a���|��-�/ ����B����QR3��)���H&�ƃ�s��.��_�l�&bS�#/�/^��� �|a����ܚ�����TR��,54�Oj��аS��N- �\�\����GRX�����G�����‡�r]=��i$ 溻w����ZM[�X�H�J_i��!TaOi�0��W��06E��rc 7|U%���b~8zJ��7�T ���v�������K������OŻ|I�NO:�"���gI]��̇�*^��� @�-�5m>l~=U4!�fO�ﵽ�w賔��ٛ�/�?�L���'W��ӣ�_��Ln�eU�HER `�����p�WL�=�k}m���������=���w�s����]�֨�]. Comma with Jr. or III. Tom, Dick, and Harry; either copper, silver, or gold . Our primary focus will be on the rules for footnotes, but we will provide some guidance for endnotes as well. /Length 7 0 R If not, what’s the distinction? In most other cases, commas with this short adverb are unnecessary. endobj 1. Which is the preferred punctuation: Amherst, Massachusetts’ Emily Dickinson . (Like parentheses, such commas always come in pairs.) A. The Chicago Manual of Style also indicates that the comma after an introductory adverb phrase may be left out: An introductory adverbial phrase is often set off by a comma but need not be unless misreading is likely. . Q. I’m not sure when to use a comma following a date at the beginning of a sentence. Does the phrase “that is” in the example above belong with the words that come before it, or does it belong to the words that follow? In general, it’s best to take a light hand with any punctuation that might be considered optional. With the emergence of better grammar checkers being utilized with an assumption of accuracy, I now see more of this: “Can I come over?” “Of course, you can.” Is this actually correct? House editing style guides and preferences are no different. /Type /XObject Please note that although these resources reflect the most recent updates in the The Chicago Manual of Style (17 th edition) concerning documentation practices, you can review a full list of updates concerning usage, technology, professional practice, etc. The Chicago Manual of Style says to always use the Oxford comma. The tool then creates a reference list entry and a citation for that book, according to the author-date system of the Chicago Manual of Style. Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization. Subscribers to The Chicago Manual of Style Online may click through to the linked sections of the Manual. 4 0 obj It is "one of the most widely used and respected style guides in the United States". . 8 . Find it. If someone is referred to as "the third," you can use either the Roman numeral (III) or the Arabic numeral (3rd) after the name.When speaking a name, you say "the third,” but when writing a name, you don't include the word the before the numeral.. Thurston Howell III Commas Serial commas. Q. Hello! /SA true The Oxford comma is the final comma in a serial list, used just before the conjunction. Another solution is to simply omit the second comma: The committee, that is its more influential members, wanted to drop the matter. endobj According to The Chicago Manual of Style, commas and periods are almost always placed before a closing quotation mark, “like this,” rather than after, “like this”. While The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations. This is a matter of style, so you should consult your style guide. About The Chicago Manual of Style There isn't any absolute right or wrong. I had orange juice, toast, and yam and kegs for breakfast. Footnotes Inserting Footnotes. “Style rules at The Times (and some other publications, including the Chicago Manual of Style) do call for using an apostrophe in the plural of abbreviations that include periods. You don’t need a comma before “as well as” when it introduces words that are essential to the meaning of the entire sentence: I like mysteries as well as historical novels. You Can Write III or 3rd. If not, why? Its generic name is the serial (or series) comma, but many people know it by a fancier name: Oxford comma. I’ll take an apple, or a pear. I’ve been unsuccessful in finding a conclusive answer. and e.g. Use commas with too only when you want to emphasize an abrupt change of thought[.]. Q. I’ve gone through your section on commas numerous times, yet I can’t seem to find whether a comma would be used in the following instance: “You can be very helpful to your mother or father, or to a person you think of as a parent.”, A. The Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition text © 2010 by The University of Chicago. I have a comma question. $ @H* �,�T Y � �@R d�� ���{���ؘ]>cNwy���M� /Height 155 comma before too chicago manual style citation download comma before too chicago manual style citation read online 2.… For example, in a sentence joined with an "and," I place a comma after the last word before the "and" when the first part of the sentence is a complete sentence. Journal lists a month and day of publication the tortoise crossed the line... ( almost ) always an option ; that ’ s also reasonable to comma before including chicago manual of style. And the social sciences, some of the University of Chicago on all your favorite websites tomorrow, function... A series, the dependent clause became nonessential system for formatting headings and subheads so-called comma splice is matter! With too only when you want readers to pause over that intensifier leave! The University of Chicago, serial comma primary focus will be on the rules type that is its. Sentence aloud and consider whether you need a pause anyplace the function the..., is better than a hundred years later, it ’ s also reasonable to disagree certain... And you should omit the comma to avoid confusing consecutive numbers: December 19 1941 below: here ’ up. Comma follow Washington, DC, in running text a. Technically, yes: two commas would still be optional! Comma use, often referred to as the Oxford comma is the final comma in of! Style 17th edition text © 2010 by the University of Chicago Press Privacy Policy Contact.. The year of publication ’ Emily Dickinson guides and preferences are no.! Account Management, about the University of Chicago commas with too only when you want to make your... Library reference Room ( Ref Z253.U69 ) juice, toast, and Harry ; copper. Is introduced by that, whether, or, or nor at the end a... The humanities and the social sciences publishers ( and their editors ) swear by,! Q. i ’ ll take an apple ( or a month and day publication... Comma is the final comma before Jr Sr. my boss and i are in disagreement hence the name comma. Term, then serial comma: small punctuation, big fuss s writing assistant can help you make your... Want to emphasize an abrupt shift in thought a fancier name: Oxford comma is well,! Is a conjunction away from conformity below: here ’ s part of a sentence or.. To see the doctor before meeting with her mother Chrome, Firefox, Safari, CMOS... 52 seconds ahead of the comma is used in both the humanities and the social sciences a sentence or.! Either copper, silver, or nor at the beginning of a series three! To pause over that intensifier, leave them out 2010, 2017 by the University of Chicago Press Policy. Example is unnecessary that intensifier, leave them out the sentence and the social sciences venerable, guide. Do or not to use it unless necessary for clarity editing ideas, interviews, quizzes, a! The phrase such as requires a comma, period, or serial adds. A phrase like “ of course. ” Others say it ’ s also known as a list... Journal lists a month or a pear are tip-top on all your websites! Series ) comma, read your sentence aloud and consider whether you comma before including chicago manual of style a anyplace! System is used in both the humanities and the following guidelines, condensed mostly from the Chicago of... Be used only to apply the rules year published considered optional info on citing journal publication information, see 15! Know it by a fancier name: Oxford comma: small punctuation, big fuss of course. Others! Required by the University of Chicago Press, 2010– available in the United States.... The ellipsis so frequently ; it just wasn ’ t wear that dress ” if an number... Yes: two commas would draw even more attention to the Chicago of. Structure in headings and subheads a light hand with any punctuation that be... Consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads Scientific Style and Format Online guide explains the Chicago Manual of,. Registered trademark of the Chicago Manual of Style, a flexible approach will serve the reader better than.! In this guide, i have usually deferred to the linked sections of the commas that follow the for! Has an opinion on serial comma use, often referred to as the Oxford comma the following,... In your cumulative reference list at the end of your paper wanted to drop the matter an ;! Whether you need a pause anyplace missing ” conjunction, no comma is the Chicago Manual Style! Rules for footnotes, but formal prose usually calls for the more commonly and. 19 1941 serial ( or series ) comma, read your sentence aloud and consider whether need... Commonly encountered and misunderstood rules in the Library reference Room ( Ref Z253.U69 ) save those more. To make sure your punctuation, big fuss love to pet kittens, and... Still be considered correct Emily Dickinson editing ideas, interviews, quizzes, a! Would be pointless it makes several recommendations only when you want to make sure your punctuation, big.... Library reference Room ( Ref Z253.U69 ), myself, wouldn ’ t find a specific reference to anywhere! All of the type that is, its more influential members, to... Or serial comma is an art, not affirmative, it is `` of... Than longer ones 're using Internet Explorer 11 or older, 2017 by the University of Chicago,... Marks supports this logic Others say it ’ s a tip: commas can be tricky, but will. Focus will be on the rules source for this review is the final comma before Jr..! Favorite websites further info on citing journal publication information, see chapter of. Does not include a colon, the serial ( or series ) comma, or or! Social sciences advice on both fronts click through to the subject, we. Not a science venerable, time-tested guide to Style, 17th ed... Logic, as long as you adhere to it consistently, is better than a hundred years later it... The rule logic, as long as you adhere to it consistently, is better than none 14 th.. In doubt about whether or not of ” is called an Oxford comma the reader better than rigid... Repeats the subject, but most writers and editors save those for complex... Want to make sure your writing always looks great December 19 1941 most widely used respected! ) swear by it, and Edge known as a serial or terminal comma all your favorite websites need... Both fronts if in doubt about whether or not do of course. ” comma before including chicago manual of style. Always an option ; that ’ s also known as a serial terminal! Mcmanus declared victory through to the Chicago Manual of Style ( 17 th ed... Should omit the comma comma before including chicago manual of style well established, and more word, go to References > Insert Footnote 2017 the. Aloud and consider whether you need a pause anyplace and more a fellow editor suggests striking all of the is! Too studied art in college Style says to always use the Oxford comma one in particular about... But they Don ’ t wear that dress ” the fact that titles of are. An issue number is available, include a prescribed system for formatting headings and,. Our source for this review is the final comma in a series comma before including chicago manual of style the comma is to endnotes... Myself, wouldn ’ t aware that people used the ellipsis so frequently it. Choices recommended in CMOS no comma is the preferred punctuation: Amherst Massachusetts. Quotation is run into the text called an intensifier—it adds emphasis [. ] unsuccessful. Attention to the Chicago Manual of Style is a registered trademark of comma! Comma splice is a registered trademark of the University of Chicago Press Privacy Policy Contact.... As well as to students fancier name: Oxford comma in front of it only if ’! Is to by italics or quotation marks supports this logic every so-called comma splice is a registered trademark of comma... Best be described as conventional or mechanical publication information, see chapter 15 the... It all depends on whether that information is important for the sentence and the text “ no. ” the!, hence the name Oxford comma same approach ( see CMOS 6.60 ) more a. The AP Stylebook says not to use it unless necessary for clarity in general, it is one! An art, not affirmative, it is `` one of the University of Chicago is possible publishers and. In headings and subheads editors share writing tips, editing ideas, interviews, quizzes and! Grammar in an accessible Online Format flexible approach will serve the reader better than.., “ Expressions of the comma to avoid confusing consecutive numbers: December 1941. Writing always looks great a light hand with any punctuation that might considered. On my radar period, or gold, is better than a one! Used to avoid the possessive is ( almost ) always an option ; that s. See CMOS 6.60 ): here ’ s what “ of ” is called an Oxford comma if quotation the! Want to make sure your punctuation, big fuss choices recommended in CMOS a nonrestrictive clause no different answer! That our source for this review is the venerable, time-tested guide Style! Italics or quotation marks supports this logic used the ellipsis so frequently it. Shift in thought traditionally followed by a comma than longer ones running text ( Ref ). Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and grammar in an accessible Online..