Practitioners of both Santería and other Afro-Cuban religions are called creyente ("believers").  Practitioners usually use the term "work" in reference both to secular and ritual activity; thus the words "working ocha" are used to describe religious rites. The trade nevertheless continued clandestinely, with Cuba continuing to receive new slaves until at least 1860.  The relationship between santeros/santeras and their 'godchildren' is central to the religion's social organization. Directed by Benny Mathews.  In July 2003, Havana hosted the Eighth World Orisha Conference.  In Santería, as in other Afro-Cuban religions, respect for elders and superiors is given great emphasis.  Specific items will be placed on the altar that have particular relevance to the oricha it is devoted to.  The most important of these were the cabildos de nación, associations modelled on Europe's cofradias which were sponsored by the Church and which the establishment regarded as a means of controlling the Afro-Cuban population.  The oricha are not regarded as being wholly benevolent, being capable of both harming and helping humans, and having a mix of emotions, virtues, and vices like humans.  Practitioners also believe that an individual's particular oricha can also be discerned through divination.  Practitioners also believe that certain oricha should be turned to assist the healing of specific ailments; Ochun is for instance usually requested when dealing with genital problems.  People who are sick may undergo the rogación de la cabeza (blessing of the head) ritual, in which coconut water and cotton are applied on the head. In disposing of them this way, visualize that you are undoing what was done and in place of, doing something for the good of all...reducing unnecessary waste...therefore you are replacing any negative energy/intentions with positive.  After independence, Afro-Cubans remained largely excluded from economic and political power, while negative stereotypes about them remained pervasive throughout the Euro-Cuban population.  They are also given their own sacred stones.  Practitioners believe that each species of plant has its own aché and that it is this which holds healing power.  Many practitioners believe that the women will be rendered infertile if they do so.  In the rompimiento (breaking), the oyubona then takes the initiate to a river.  The two are closely linked, sharing the same mythology and conception of the universe, although Ifá also has a separate existence from Santería.  These are a practice adopted from Espiritismo. Santería nevertheless remained marginalized by the Roman Catholic establishment, which typically viewed it as a type of brujería (witchcraft) associated with criminality. How do you think about the answers? I would either burn the bottles whole, OR I would empty out the contents into a river or ocean or something like that -- moving water.  Another female divinity, Ochún, is the oricha of rivers and of romantic love. Get Out! dump out the vinegar and whatnot, wash the bottles out and put them in recycling. ... Palo Mayombe is nearly always connected to …  Although the dead are not perceived as being as powerful as the oricha, they are still regarded as having the ability to assist the living, with whom they can communicate through dreams, intuition, and spirit possession.   An alternative term for an initiate is a babalocha or babaloricha ("father-deity") if male and an iyalocha or iyaloricha ("mother-deity") if female. , Santería has an elaborate system of ritual, one which incorporates song, dance, spirit possession, and animal sacrifice. When people were (are still are ) in societies that keep them ignorant to truth, they are easily trained to fear what those who have greater knowledge. This song …  Much of its focus is on solving the problems of everyday life.  Obatalá is the oricha of truth and justice and is deemed responsible for helping to mould humanity. Aleyos who have no connection to the religion often wonder how they can learn more about it and how they can get involved with it.  The three facets of this divinity are understood slightly differently; Olodumare represents the divine essence of all that exists, Olorun is regarded as the creator of all beings, while Olofi dwells in all creation. Stop believing in magic is the best way to dispel such silly things. Ok so here is the deal. With Astrid Steel, Nellie Gonzalez, Nito Perez Jr., Genaro T. Perez.  They often also believe that different types of plant have different temperaments and personalities; some are shy or easily frightened and thus need to be approached with the appropriate etiquette.  However, during the nineteenth century, their functions and membership expanded. , Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, at which Cuba lost its main source of international support, Castro's government declared that the country was entering a "Special Period" in which new economic measures would be necessary. Get a FREE Bonus with this bundle. Santería teaches the existence of an overarching divinity, known as Olodumare, Olofl, or Olorun, representing a monotheisticprinciple in the religion. Well, I swear that I.  Many practitioners also describe how they "read" messages from the oricha in everyday interactions and events. , After slavery was abolished in Cuba there was a renewed push for independence from the Spanish Empire, an idea promoted by Cuban nationalists who emphasized cultural assimilation of the island's various ethnic groups to create a united sense of 'Cuban-ness'. Please do so in the best way possible for the environment.  Resguardos are often given to small children, who are deemed particularly vulnerable to sorcery.  Changó or Shango is associated with lightning and fire; he is perhaps the most popular oricha within the pantheon.  Lachatañeré was instrumental in promoting the term "Santería" in reference to the phenomenon, deeming it a more neutral description that the pejorative-laden terms such as brujería which were commonly used. " There are nevertheless cases where an initiate falls out with their godparent.   Unlike the more open policy for Santería initiates, only heterosexual men are traditionally allowed to become babalawos, although homosexual male babalawos have been recorded both in Cuba and the U.S. Women are prohibited from taking on the role, a restriction explained through the story that the oricha Orula was furious that Yemaya, his wife, had used his tabla divining board and subsequently decided to ban women from ever touching it again. Every religion has only a singular god which is being served by spirits and lesser deities. , Santería places restrictions on the tasks that women are permitted to do while menstruating. Each individual is believed to have a specific oricha who has been connected to them since before birth and who informs their personality.  Priests of Santería, Ifá, and Palo Monte all took part in government-sponsored tours for foreigners desiring initiation into such traditions.  They are perceived as living in a realm called orún, which is contrasted with ayé, the realm of humanity.  The rituals for self-protection have also resulted in Santería being adopted by various groups involved in narcotics trafficking within the U.S., In Santería, funeral rites are called itulu, and are designed to appease the soul of the deceased.  He is depicted as being black on one side and red on the other, and although often shown as male is sometimes depicted as being female. Concepts from Spiritism increasingly filtered into Santería from the late 19th century onward. , Typically placed on the altar are the sopera porcelain vessels, often tureens, which contain various sacred items, most notably the otán stones (pl. Santería's members usually meet in the homes of santeros or santeras to venerate specific oricha at altars set up for that purpose.  Most initiates know between a few dozen through to hundreds of Lucumí words and phrases, although there are initiates who are not comfortable using it. Even though there are various religions and sects in Africa, one thing is common in all of them. , Healing is an important practice in Santería, and health problems are the most common reason why people approach a santero or santera.  Practitioners often believe that medicinal plants are more powerful if harvested from the wild rather than being cultivated, for the latter can lack aché.